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Linda's Tour

Work permits

Other than factory work, there were few jobs within the ghetto. Nazi factories were built to take advantage of Jewish forced labor. For example, as early as May 1940, the Germans established factories in the Łódź Ghetto and used Jewish residents for forced labor. By August 1942, there were almost 100 factories within the ghetto. The major factories produced textiles, especially uniforms, for the German army. When a Jew had a job and a work permit to prove it, that Jew was temporarily saved from deportation to a concentration camp.  

Łódź Ghetto work permit 1942

Łódź Ghetto Work Permit from the Labor Department issued on May 30, 1942. “Pinkus Wagman of 33 Muelgasse is designated for manual labor.” 

Maria Felelzsy Time Card
Maria Felelzsy Work Permit

Tarnow Ghetto Work Permit issued to Maria Felelzsy for September. The Tarnow Ghetto was operational from June 1941 until September 1943.


Maria Felelzsy of 250 Motowa Street, born on December 25, 1904, worker and head of the household. This worker's card is valid in conjunction with the personal identity card of the owner. Misuse of this card will be punished most severely. I am aware that I am obliged to report to the fortification construction site on time and to follow all orders of the construction management.”


After six days stamped of reporting for work, there is an entry scribbled on the work card Certified unfit for work by the official physician

Hans Martinek Work Permit

Hans Martinek of 16 Na Bojisti Street in Prague born February 29, 1924, was put to work in 1940 at age 16 in Prague. He was given this work booklet on January 29, 1940, stamped “J” for Jude (Jewish) by the Prague police. He was an office worker in the service industry, listed as a food service worker and a tester. On July 20, 1942, his work booklet had a page added for his work permit for the Theresienstadt Ghetto. In March 1945, several jobs were listed, including a transportation job.  In May 1945 the Red Army liberated the ghetto.


The physical description lists: short; dark brown hair; greyish-blue eyes; a straight nose; no beard; average/proportionate mouth; good teeth.

Work card translation:

1. Jewish Ghetto workers are expected to work and carry this card with him.
2. He is obliged to show his work card when moving the evidence in the case of changes in the work assignment of the employment agency, in the case of diseases of the office of the ambulance, in the case of different medicines from pharmacists, when reclassifying the work center, for official correction.
3. He must also ensure that his off-duty day is entered into the work card by the competent department.
4. Failure to comply with the above-mentioned regulations is punishable. Likewise, an unauthorized change of the information in the work card is punishable.

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